GM. Volumen 129, Suplemento Nº2. Agosto, 2021






Comisiones Científicas para el bienio 2020-2022



Multidisciplinary Research in Medicine Science during COVID-19 Pandemic. Muhammad Miftahussurur

It is a great honor to be Guest Editor of this special number of Gaceta Médica de Caracas. We especially appreciate the invitation of the Board of Directors of the Medicine Academy and the Editor-in-Chief, Dr. Manuel Velasco, to prepare this supplement, as well as the great support, received from the Senior Editor, Dr. Anita Stern Israel.

Since 2020 we have experienced the COVID-19 pandemic which has had an impact on many aspects, not only affecting lives and health, but also livelihoods, economy, and behaviors. The spread of COVID-19 in Indonesia is now increasingly widespread, with the number of cases exposed to COVID-19 increasing day by day.


Serum HDL-c and LDL-c levels as the predictors of COVID-19 severity. Andro P. Witarto, Achmad JE. Putra, Shidi L. Pramudito

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious disease caused by severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and comes with various degrees of severity from mild to critical conditions. This study aims to evaluate and clarify the roles of serum HDL-c and LDL-c levels in predicting the COVID-19 severity.

Correlation of HbA1c levels and diabetic neuropathy complications in diabetes mellitus patients. Anisatul Hamida, Laily Irfana, Detty Nur Irawati

Introduction: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease caused by impairments in insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells and/or impaired insulin regulation by the body (insulin resistance). Inadequate management of DM can be a trigger of several complications, such as diabetic neuropathy.

The proper use of face mask during COVID-19 pandemic in urban community. Jongky Hendro Prajitno, Sulistiawati, Kahexa Firman, Jefferson Caessario, Nihal Sofyan, Bagus Ari, Anak Agung Putri, Alfi Nureta, Aulia Rafikasari, LiofelitaChristi, Hamzah Farouq

Background: We need to know the understanding and behavior of the people for the prevention of coronavirus transmission. The breakthrough method is needed to be able to evaluate health problems among the society, provide solutions, and simultaneously evaluate the impact of changes on society.

Soluble CD163 and small dense LDL cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes patients. Hermina Novida, Soebagijo Adi Soelistijo, Ari Sutjahjo

Introduction: The sdLDL cholesterol proportion is a better marker for the prediction of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Macrophages play a crucial role in both the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis, the underlying mechanism of CVDs. This study investigated the correlation between soluble CD163 as a biomarker macrophage activation and sdLDL cholesterol in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects for the first time.

Analysis of eosinophil and lymphocyte concentrations on the incidence of mild and severe acute asthma exacerbations. Raihan Syarif Humaidy, Mohammad Subkhan, Nurma Yuliyanasari, Nabil Salim Ambar

Introduction: Exacerbation of asthma is an episode characterized by an increase in symptoms of progressive shortness of breath, coughing, wheezing, chest tightness, and a progressive decrease in lung function. Among the cells involved and activated in acute exacerbations in asthma are eosinophils and lymphocytes.

The effect of smoking degree on the incidents of cataracts. Nyimas Salsabila Rahma, Yudith Annisa Ayu Rezkitha, Kaniraras Lintang Prameswari, Kartika Prahasanti

Introduction: A cataract is a condition of the eye lens experiencing turbidity. It is the highest cause of blindness in the world. Smoking is one of the risk factors for cataracts. According to the Brinkman index, the degree of smoking is a multiplication between smoking time and the number of cigarettes consumed in a day. This study aims to analyze the influence of smoking degree on cataracts.

Immunoglobulin-E and Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Receptor Antibody in Graves’ disease with Atopy. Rio Wironegoro, Ari Baskoro, Chairul Effendi, Agung Pranoto

Background: Graves’ disease is known to have a high recurrence rate with recent evidence linked pollen allergy as one of the factors that might induce relapse in Graves’ disease. Therefore, it was argued that IgE might play a role in inducing relapse of Graves’ Disease. This study aims to investigate the correlation between IgE and Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone ReceptorAntibody (TRAb) in Graves’ disease respondents with a history of atopy.

Maternal age and parity associated with low birth weight infants. Intan Afifah, Ninuk Dwi Ariningtyas, Gina Noor Djalilah, Muhammad Anas

Introduction: Low birth weight (LBW) infants indicate infant morbidity and infant mortality rates. In Indonesia, the infant mortality rate is still very high, with 32 deaths per 1 000 live births. The purpose of this study is to prove a relationship between maternal age and parity with LBW infants.

Etiological pathogen causes of diarrhea in children. Esa Widhanar, Musa Ghufron, Nenny Triastuti, Edim Hartati

Introduction: The incidence of diarrhea in early childhood in developing countries has a mortality rate of nearly one million each year. This study aims to determine the pathogens that cause diarrhea in children based on their groups.

A descriptive analysis of the spatiotemporal distribution of hepatitis A virus outbreak in Pacitan, East Java, Indonesia. Aditya Doni Pradana, Raissa Virgy Rianda, Zhanna Ovitha Riskhathusa, Swastika A. S. Asri, Rama Azalix Rianda, Aris Istianah, Ratha-korn Vilaichone, Muhammad Miftahussurur

Background: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is one of the most serious notifiable viral hepatitis and causing public health problems in Indonesia. The outbreaks of HAV in Indonesia have been reported in several sites from 1998-2018, however systematic epidemiological data regarding Spatio-temporal distribution of HAV outbreaks are lacking. Aims: To explore, visualize, and report systematically the recent HAV outbreak and identify the socioeconomic determinants associated with the risk of HAV outbreak.

Characteristics of patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever and its relationship with the prevalence of dengue shock syndrome in children. Edim Hartati, Muhammad Anas, Gina Noor Djalilah, Ayu Lidya Paramita

Introduction: Many dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) cases tend to increase from year to year. This study aims to determine DHF patients’ characteristics and determine their relationship with the prevalence of Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS) throughout children.

Effects of treadmill exercises on pancreatic β cell function through the role of vitamin D in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Anugrahini Irawati, Sony Wibisono Mudjanarko, Damayanti Tinduh

Background: Vitamin D is a lipophilic compound that can be trapped in adipose tissue that is often obtained in metabolic syndrome. This study aims to compare 25(OH)D levels and pancreatic β cell function before and after moderate-intensity treadmill with increased speed and gradual inclination in type 2 diabetic patients.

Malondialdehyde levels and clinical outcomes assessed by the modified Rankin scale in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke. Abdulloh Machin, Nurlisa Naila Aulia, Sita Setyowatie

Background: Oxidative stress plays an important role in secondary brain injury after a stroke of intracerebral hemorrhage. This study aimed to determine the association between malondialdehyde (MDA) levels with clinical outcomes assessed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke.

Association between bleeding volume with heme oxygenase-1 and malondialdehyde levels in patients of acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Sita Setyowatie, Abdulloh Machin, Nurlisa Naila Aulia

Background: Oxidative stress plays an important role in secondary brain damage after a stroke of intracerebral hemorrhage because it causes permanent damage to grey matter, white matter taken by brain blood barrier disorders, and brain edema with brain cells. This study aimed to determine the correlation between bleeding volume and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in stroke patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage at Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya.

Triple elimination in pregnant women in Indonesia. Dinda Sella Octaviana, Afif Nurul Hidayati, Muhammad Ilham Aldika Akbar, Muhammad Miftahussurur

Background: Triple elimination, which is an activity to control the transmission of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), syphilis, and hepatitis B from pregnant women to babies in Indonesia, has very minimal data regarding progress and current conditions. This study aims to identify the Triple Elimination profile at community health centers in Putat Jaya, Dupak, and Perak Timur, Surabaya.

COVID-19 and hepatitis B Ambassador of Surabaya, Indonesia: Motivation, commitment, and knowledge of youth generation towards health programs in the pandemic era. Ricky Indra Alfaray, Firyal Nadiah Rahmah, Lionardy Yodianto, Abu Rizal Dwikatmono Johan, Muhammad Raihan Habibi, Shod Abdurrachman, Yudith Annisa Ayu Rezkitha, Reny I’tishom, Yoshio Yamaoka, Muhammad Miftahussurur

Background: To curb Corona Virus Diseases 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and Hepatitis B further spread, the local Health Ministry collaborated with local communities to build COVID-19 and Hepatitis B Ambassador. This program utilizes the youth generation to support health promotion and health prevention.

Relationship on the performance of doctors in inpatients towards the level of patient satisfaction. Ilham Daud Samodra, Tjatur Prijambodo, Musa Ghufron, Sri Widyaningsih

Introduction: The hospital is one place that provides personal health services in the short term and long term. Assessing a hospital’s quality of service can be seen from the satisfaction of patients who seek treatment. This study aimed to determine inpatient clinic patients’ characteristics and the relationship between doctors’ performance and satisfaction levels of inpatients.

Differences in the characteristics of long-term contraceptive device acceptors compared to short-term ones. M. Frando Ghiffari Ekwanda, Uning Marlina, Nova Primadina

Introduction: Long-term contraception is expected to reduce the Total Fertility Rate. However, currently, the use of short-term contraception is more dominant than the long-term (4:1). The study aims to identify differences in the characteristics of sexually active women of reproductive age using long-term versus short-term contraception.

Factors associated with the success of exclusive breastfeeding in the rural area. Reza Putri Maghriza, Ninuk Dwi Ariningtyas, Yelvi Levani, Musa Ghufron

Introduction: In Indonesia, coverage of exclusive breastfeeding has not yet met the government’s goal of 80%. This study aimed to ascertain the relationship between maternal education and occupation, family support, and belief in myths and exclusive breastfeeding success in a rural region.

Admission assessment criteria in predicting students’ academic performance in newly established medical school. Nurma Yuliyanasari, Laily Irfana, Kartika Prahasanti, Syafarinah Nur Hidayah Akil

Introduction: Various medical education institutions around the world have different methods and criteria in selecting the ideal candidate. This study aims to determine the most appropriate admission criteria for predicting student academic performance in a newly established medical faculty in Indonesia.

The effect of Ramadan fasting on clinical and laboratory parameters in chronic kidney disease patients underwent hemodialysis. Langgeng Perdhana, Shofa Chasani

Background: Despite getting relief from not fasting during Ramadan, some hemodialysis patients will ask questions about how fasting affects their health and whether they are allowed to fast. This study aims to determine the relationship between Ramadan fasting on clinical and laboratory parameters in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients undergoing hemodialysis.

Effect of astaxanthin on malondialdehyde level in damaged cerebral cortex tissue in male rat (Rattus norvegicus) induced by formaldehyde orally. Erik Ahmad Hasyim, Virhan Novianry, Mistika Zakiah, Andriani, Dyan Roshinta Laksmi Dewi

Background: Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a dialdehyde substance that is the final product of lipids peroxidation in the human body, and it can be used as a biomarker of oxidative stress. One of the most potent antioxidants known nowadays is astaxanthin. This study aims to investigate the effect of astaxanthin on the MDA level in cerebral cortex tissue of Rattus norvegicus, which was given oral formaldehyde.

Intradialytic and post-dialytic complications in chronic kidney disease patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Alvin Henri, Christine Christine, Mario Gregorius Barbarigo Nara

Background: Acute complications can happen during dialysis or after dialysis, and often those complications are inevitable. Although hemodialysis is claimed to be a relatively safe option, these complications often bring significant discomfort for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. This study was to determine CKD patients’ characteristics and figure out the frequencies

Pulmonary tuberculosis patients with diabetes mellitus have a more severe degree of chest X-ray compared to pulmonary tuberculosis patients without diabetes mellitus. Muhammad Ramzi, Muslim Andala Putra, Mohammad Subkhan

Introduction: Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) cases increase along with the increase in diabetes mellitus (DM) cases. The purpose of this study is to compare the description of Thorax X-ray severity between pulmonary TB patients without DM and pulmonary TB patients with DM.

The importance of health-related to quality-of-life assessment in pulmonary tuberculosis patients: A literature review. Angga Dimas Mahendra, Yudith Annisa Ayu Rezkitha, Nur Mujaddidah Mochtar, Afrita Amalia Laitupa

Introduction: Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) has still become a community health problem in worldwide. TB is a public health threat with significant annual impacts on morbidity and mortality, and a negative impact on overall patients’ life. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is critical in TB patients, as it is correlated with treatment outcomes and all aspects of the patient’s life. This literature review aims to evaluate HRQoL in TB patients and the most affected aspects of it.

Correlation of pre-operating antibiotic types with surgical site infection in post-appendectomy patients. Fitria Romadoni, Handayani, Aditya Bhayusakti

Introduction: Prophylactic antibiotics are antibiotics given to patients undergoing surgery to prevent infection due to surgery. Surgical site infection (SSI) is an infection that occurs when microorganisms from the skin, other body parts, or the environment enter the postoperative incision. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between preoperative antibiotics and the occurrence of SSI.

Respiratory allergy with concentration ability in young adults. Handayani, Evi Sylvia Awwalia

Introduction: Respiratory allergies prevalence in Indonesia, Asia, and the world ranges from 4-10%. Patients with respiratory allergies and other chronic respiratory diseases often experienced deterioration of productivity and concentration ability. This study aims to observe the correlation between respiratory allergy and concentration ability in adults.

Mental health, depression, and quality of life levels in heart failure patients. Abraham Ahmad Ali Firdaus, Nur Azizah, Silvia

Introduction: Heart failure is the most common cause of death. About 20 %-40 % of heart failure patients’ have depressive disorders. Improvements in patients’ quality of life could give an effect on the progression of cardiovascular disease. This study aims to describe depression and quality of life in heart failure patients.

Profile of unnatural mortality at tertiary hospital. Mustika Chasanatusy Syarifah, Diyan Wahyu Kurniasari

Introduction: Unnatural deaths are deaths that can be prevented, the frequency of which reflects the quality of public health services. Unnatural deaths occur due to external causes such as suicide, homicide, and accidents. This study aims to analyze the profile of cases of unnatural death at Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia.

Characteristics of reproductive-aged women with unmet need for family planning. Nadia Rochmaya, Uning Marlina, Nova Primadina

Introduction: One factor that led to the increase in population was the unfulfilled need for family planning or unmet needs. The number of unmet needs in Indonesia is still high, at 10.50 %. This study aims to determine the differences between unmet needs in reproductive-aged women for family planning.

Karo Traditional Oil, a traditional herbal medicine from Indonesia promote wound healing acceleration by suppressing tumor necrosis factor – α and stimulating interleukin 10 production. Nova Primadina

Introduction: Wound healing acceleration is often found on open wounds smeared with Karo Traditional Oil, but its mechanism of action is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the mechanism of action of active compounds in Karo Traditional Oil in the inflammation phase of the wound healing process.

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