The Soul, Origin and Evolution of the concept, relationship with the Psyche of human beings. José Antonio O’Daly Carbonell


Short title: Origin and Evolution of the Soul, induction of conscience and unconscious in the structure of the human psyche.


Consciousness helps animals’ needs, goals as stated by Aristotle. Soul is the principle of animal life. The Soul can act or be acted upon without involving the body; e.g. anger, courage, appetite, and sensation. All the affections of Soul involve a body passion, gentleness, fear, pity, courage, joy, loving, and hating; with a concurrent affection of the body. Two characteristic has soul: movement and sensation. The doctrine of the Pythagoreans: the motes in air what moved them, is to be the Soul they are seen always in movement, even in complete calm. The Soul is that which moves itself; movement is what is closest to the nature of Soul, and while all else is moved by Soul, it alone moves. Democritus identifies Soul and mind. Anaxagoras says that the cause of beauty and order is mind, elsewhere that it is a soul; it is found in all animals, great and small, high and low, but mind, in the sense of intelligence, appears not to belong alike to all animals, and indeed not even to all human beings. Soul is to be identified with what is eminently originative of movement.

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Academia Nacional de Medicina