The psyche defined by thoughts, autapses, the connectome, brain cells. José Antonio O’Daly Carbonell


The brain has 100 billion neurons, connected by the connectome, base of human cognition. An autapse is the axon of a neuron onto itself, found in neocortex, substantia nigra, hippocampus. Neurotransmitters are stored in synaptic vesicles, released into the synaptic cleft, to the postsynaptic neuron. The locus coeruleus is in the pons, site for stress, and norepinephrine. The hippocampus is component of the limbic system, role in memory. The cerebral cortex is the brain outer layer, implicated in speech, language. The cingulate cortex is above the corpus callosum, involved with emotion, learning, and memory. The ventral tegmental area are neurons in the midline on the floor of the midbrain origin of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system it is implicated in the drug and natural reward circuitry of the brain. Psychosis doesn’t know what is real, with hallucinations, incoherent speech. The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland. The midbrain is associated with vision, hearing, motor control. The psyche is the conscious and unconscious mind. New cells described in retina, glycogen as source of energy, gap junctions with Na+K+ATPase.

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Academia Nacional de Medicina